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城市環境所利用單細胞拉曼光譜研究土壤解磷微生物取得進展

文章來源:城市環境研究所   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  磷是一種至關重要但不可再生的資源。磷肥是作物生長必須三大營養元素(氮、磷、鉀)之一,但磷礦是有限資源,據估計,以目前的磷礦儲備,大概還能繼續開采100年,因此,磷又被稱為“正在消失的元素”。隨著長期大量的磷肥施用,土壤中積累了大量固定態磷,大大降低了磷素的生物有效性,加劇了磷資源短缺的問題,對土壤固定態磷的活化成為未來發展可持續農業和磷肥利用的重要戰略。

  微生物是土壤元素循環的發動機,解磷微生物可以通過釋放有機酸溶解土壤中的鈣磷,或釋放活性磷酸酶活化土壤中的有機磷。利用解磷微生物釋放土壤中被固定的磷,提升磷的生物有效性,對磷素的可持續利用和緩解磷礦枯竭危機具有至關重要的作用。然而,環境微生物的大量不可純培養性,對開發利用微生物資源帶來了很大的挑戰。從單細胞水平上研究環境微生物可克服純培養或富集培養的限制,實現在環境介質下的原位研究,拉曼光譜可在單細胞水平上對微生物進行無損檢測。

  中國科學院城市環境研究所朱永官研究團隊發展了利用單細胞拉曼結合重水標記篩選高活性土壤解磷微生物的新方法。該方法可以無損檢測土壤環境中不可培養的微生物,從而挖掘出具有強解磷功能的微生物。方法原理是:在僅固定態無機磷(如難溶磷酸三鈣)或有機磷(如卵磷脂)存在的環境中,具有解磷功能的微生物由于仍具活性,甚至生長繁殖能力,因此能同化重水中的氘,產生特征的C-D拉曼峰。解磷微生物與非解磷微生物在C-D拉曼峰存在巨大的強度差異,解磷能力越強的微生物具有越強的C-D拉曼峰,利用這一特性可以靈敏快速地篩選出土壤中的解磷微生物。重水標記由于不改變環境營養底物庫,可更真實反映土壤環境中的解磷微生物。上述工作促進了對未知環境菌群的深入認識,尤其是磷循環功能菌及其活性的深入解析。研究成果以D2O Isotope Labeling Approach to Probing Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria in Complex Soil Communities by Single-Cell Raman Spectroscopy 為題發表在國際期Analytical Chemistry,城市環境所博士生李弘哲為第一作者,研究員崔麗為通訊作者。該研究得到科技部國家重點研發計劃和國家自然科學基金等的資助。

  文章鏈接 

 

土壤解磷菌拉曼鑒定流程

 

無磷土壤中培養24小時的土壤細菌的單細胞拉曼光譜




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